The most influential writer
in all of English literature, William Shakespeare was born in 1564
to a successful middle-class glove-maker in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Shakespeare attended grammar school, but his formal
education proceeded no further. In 1582 he married an older
woman, Anne Hathaway, and had three children with her. Around 1590
he left his family behind and traveled to London to work as an actor and playwright. Public and critical acclaim quickly followed,
and Shakespeare eventually became the most popular playwright in England and part-owner of the Globe Theater. His career bridged
the reigns of Elizabeth I (ruled 1558–1603) and James I (ruled 1603–1625), and he was a favorite of both monarchs. Indeed, James granted
Shakespeare’s company the greatest possible compliment by bestowing upon its members the title of King’s Men.
Wealthy and renowned, Shakespeare retired to Stratford and died in 1616
at the age of fifty-two. At the time of Shakespeare’s death, literary luminaries such as Ben Jonson hailed his works
Shakespeare’s works were collected and printed
in various editions in the century following his death, and by the early eighteenth century his reputation as the greatest
poet ever to write in English was well established. The unprecedented admiration garnered by his works led to a fierce curiosity
about Shakespeare’s life, but the dearth of biographical information has left many details of Shakespeare’s personal
history shrouded in mystery. Some people have concluded from this fact and from Shakespeare’s modest education that
Shakespeare’s plays were actually written by someone else—Francis Bacon and the Earl of Oxford are the two most
popular candidates—but the support for this claim is overwhelmingly circumstantial, and the theory is not taken seriously
by many scholars.
In the absence of credible evidence to the contrary,
Shakespeare must be viewed as the author of the thirty-seven plays and 154
sonnets that bear his name. The legacy of this body of work is immense. A number of Shakespeare’s plays seem to have
transcended even the category of brilliance, becoming so influential as to affect profoundly the course of Western literature
and culture ever after.
Shakespeare’s shortest and bloodiest tragedy,
Macbeth tells the story of a brave Scottish general (Macbeth) who receives a prophecy
from a trio of sinister witches that one day he will become king of Scotland. Consumed with ambitious thoughts and spurred
to action by his wife, Macbeth murders King Duncan and seizes the throne for himself. He begins his reign wracked with guilt
and fear and soon becomes a tyrannical ruler, as he is forced to commit more and more murders to protect himself from enmity
and suspicion. The bloodbath swiftly propels Macbeth and Lady Macbeth to arrogance, madness, and death.
was most likely written in 1606, early in the reign of James
I, who had been James VI of Scotland before he succeeded to the English throne in 1603.
James was a patron of Shakespeare’s acting company, and of all the plays Shakespeare wrote under James’s reign,
Macbeth most clearly reflects the playwright’s close relationship with the sovereign.
In focusing on Macbeth, a figure from Scottish history, Shakespeare paid homage to his king’s Scottish lineage. Additionally,
the witches’ prophecy that Banquo will found a line of kings is a clear nod to James’s family’s claim to
have descended from the historical Banquo. In a larger sense, the theme of bad versus good kingship, embodied by Macbeth and
Duncan, respectively, would have resonated at the royal court, where James was busy developing his English version of the
theory of divine right.
is not Shakespeare’s most complex play, but it is certainly one of his most powerful and emotionally intense. Whereas
Shakespeare’s other major tragedies, such as Hamlet and Othello,
fastidiously explore the intellectual predicaments faced by their subjects and the fine nuances of their subjects’
characters, Macbeth tumbles madly from its opening to its conclusion. It is a sharp,
jagged sketch of theme and character; as such, it has shocked and fascinated audiences for nearly four hundred years.